Java连接PostgreSQL数据库

纸浅少年 1年前 ⋅ 443 阅读

在Java程序中使用PostgreSQL之前,我们需要确保在机器上安装了PostgreSQL JDBC和Java。 您可以在机器上检查是否正确安装了Java:Java教程。 现在我们来看一下如何设置PostgreSQL JDBC驱动。

  • postgresql-jdbc存储库下载最新版本的postgresql-(VERSION).jdbc.jar

  • 在类路径中添加下载的jar文件postgresql-(VERSION).jdbc.jar,或者您可以使用-classpath选项,如下面的例子所述。

Java连接到PostgreSQL数据库

以下Java代码显示如何连接到现有数据库。 如果数据库不存在,那么它将被创建,最后将返回一个数据库对象。

import java.sql.Connection;
import java.sql.DriverManager;

public class PostgreSQLJDBC {
   public static void main(String args[]) {
      Connection c = null;
      try {
         Class.forName("org.postgresql.Driver");
         c = DriverManager
            .getConnection("jdbc:postgresql://localhost:5432/testdb",
            "postgres", "123");
      } catch (Exception e) {
         e.printStackTrace();
         System.err.println(e.getClass().getName()+": "+e.getMessage());
         System.exit(0);
      }
      System.out.println("Opened database successfully");
   }
}
Java

在编译并运行上述程序之前,请在PostgreSQL安装目录中找到pg_hba.conf文件并添加以下行:

# IPv4 local connections:
host    all         all         127.0.0.1/32          md5
Shell

您可以启动/重新启动postgres服务器,使用以下命令运行:

[root@host]# service postgresql restart
Stopping postgresql service:                               [  OK  ]
Starting postgresql service:                               [  OK  ]
Shell

现在,我们来编译并运行上面的程序来获得与testdb的连接。 在这里使用用户ID为postgres和密码为123来访问数据库。 您可以根据数据库配置和设置进行更改。 我们还假定当前版本的JDBC驱动程序postgresql-9.2-1002.jdbc3.jar在当前路径中(c:\tools\)可用。

C:\JavaPostgresIntegration>javac PostgreSQLJDBC.java
C:\JavaPostgresIntegration>java -cp c:\tools\postgresql-9.2-1002.jdbc3.jar;C:\JavaPostgresIntegration PostgreSQLJDBC
Open database successfully
Shell

创建表

以下Java程序将用于在之前打开的数据库中创建一个表。确保目标数据库中没有此表。

import java.sql.*;

import java.sql.Connection;
import java.sql.DriverManager;
import java.sql.Statement;


public class PostgreSQLJDBC {
   public static void main( String args[] )
     {
       Connection c = null;
       Statement stmt = null;
       try {
         Class.forName("org.postgresql.Driver");
         c = DriverManager
            .getConnection("jdbc:postgresql://localhost:5432/testdb",
            "manisha", "123");
         System.out.println("Opened database successfully");

         stmt = c.createStatement();
         String sql = "CREATE TABLE COMPANY " +
                      "(ID INT PRIMARY KEY     NOT NULL," +
                      " NAME           TEXT    NOT NULL, " +
                      " AGE            INT     NOT NULL, " +
                      " ADDRESS        CHAR(50), " +
                      " SALARY         REAL)";
         stmt.executeUpdate(sql);
         stmt.close();
         c.close();
       } catch ( Exception e ) {
         System.err.println( e.getClass().getName()+": "+ e.getMessage() );
         System.exit(0);
       }
       System.out.println("Table created successfully");
     }
}
Java

编译和执行程序时,将在testdb数据库中创建COMPANY表,并显示以下两行:

Opened database successfully
Table created successfully
Shell

插入数据操作

以下Java程序显示了如何在上述示例中创建的COMPANY表中创建/插入数据记录:

import java.sql.Connection;
import java.sql.DriverManager;
import java.sql.Statement;

public class PostgreSQLJDBC {
   public static void main(String args[]) {
      Connection c = null;
      Statement stmt = null;
      try {
         Class.forName("org.postgresql.Driver");
         c = DriverManager
            .getConnection("jdbc:postgresql://localhost:5432/testdb",
            "manisha", "123");
         c.setAutoCommit(false);
         System.out.println("Opened database successfully");

         stmt = c.createStatement();
         String sql = "INSERT INTO COMPANY (ID,NAME,AGE,ADDRESS,SALARY) "
               + "VALUES (1, 'Paul', 32, 'California', 20000.00 );";
         stmt.executeUpdate(sql);

         sql = "INSERT INTO COMPANY (ID,NAME,AGE,ADDRESS,SALARY) "
               + "VALUES (2, 'Allen', 25, 'Texas', 15000.00 );";
         stmt.executeUpdate(sql);

         sql = "INSERT INTO COMPANY (ID,NAME,AGE,ADDRESS,SALARY) "
               + "VALUES (3, 'Teddy', 23, 'Norway', 20000.00 );";
         stmt.executeUpdate(sql);

         sql = "INSERT INTO COMPANY (ID,NAME,AGE,ADDRESS,SALARY) "
               + "VALUES (4, 'Mark', 25, 'Rich-Mond ', 65000.00 );";
         stmt.executeUpdate(sql);

         stmt.close();
         c.commit();
         c.close();
      } catch (Exception e) {
         System.err.println( e.getClass().getName()+": "+ e.getMessage() );
         System.exit(0);
      }
      System.out.println("Records created successfully");
   }
}
Java

程序编译执行后,将在COMPANY表中创建/插入给定的记录,并显示以下两行:

Opened database successfully
Records created successfully
Shell

SELECT操作

以下Java程序显示了如何从上述示例中创建的COMPANY表中获取和显示记录:

import java.sql.Connection;
import java.sql.DriverManager;
import java.sql.ResultSet;
import java.sql.Statement;


public class PostgreSQLJDBC {
   public static void main( String args[] )
     {
       Connection c = null;
       Statement stmt = null;
       try {
       Class.forName("org.postgresql.Driver");
         c = DriverManager
            .getConnection("jdbc:postgresql://localhost:5432/testdb",
            "manisha", "123");
         c.setAutoCommit(false);
         System.out.println("Opened database successfully");

         stmt = c.createStatement();
         ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery( "SELECT * FROM COMPANY;" );
         while ( rs.next() ) {
            int id = rs.getInt("id");
            String  name = rs.getString("name");
            int age  = rs.getInt("age");
            String  address = rs.getString("address");
            float salary = rs.getFloat("salary");
            System.out.println( "ID = " + id );
            System.out.println( "NAME = " + name );
            System.out.println( "AGE = " + age );
            System.out.println( "ADDRESS = " + address );
            System.out.println( "SALARY = " + salary );
            System.out.println();
         }
         rs.close();
         stmt.close();
         c.close();
       } catch ( Exception e ) {
         System.err.println( e.getClass().getName()+": "+ e.getMessage() );
         System.exit(0);
       }
       System.out.println("Operation done successfully");
     }
}
Java

程序编译执行时,会产生以下结果:

Opened database successfully
ID = 1
NAME = Paul
AGE = 32
ADDRESS = California
SALARY = 20000.0

ID = 2
NAME = Allen
AGE = 25
ADDRESS = Texas
SALARY = 15000.0

ID = 3
NAME = Teddy
AGE = 23
ADDRESS = Norway
SALARY = 20000.0

ID = 4
NAME = Mark
AGE = 25
ADDRESS = Rich-Mond
SALARY = 65000.0

Operation done successfully
Shell

更新操作

以下Java代码显示了如何使用UPDATE语句来更新指定记录,然后从COMPANY表中获取和显示更新的记录:

import java.sql.Connection;
import java.sql.DriverManager;
import java.sql.ResultSet;
import java.sql.Statement;


public class PostgreSQLJDBC {
   public static void main( String args[] )
     {
       Connection c = null;
       Statement stmt = null;
       try {
       Class.forName("org.postgresql.Driver");
         c = DriverManager
            .getConnection("jdbc:postgresql://localhost:5432/testdb",
            "manisha", "123");
         c.setAutoCommit(false);
         System.out.println("Opened database successfully");

         stmt = c.createStatement();
         String sql = "UPDATE COMPANY set SALARY = 25000.00 where ID=1;";
         stmt.executeUpdate(sql);
         c.commit();

         ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery( "SELECT * FROM COMPANY;" );
         while ( rs.next() ) {
            int id = rs.getInt("id");
            String  name = rs.getString("name");
            int age  = rs.getInt("age");
            String  address = rs.getString("address");
            float salary = rs.getFloat("salary");
            System.out.println( "ID = " + id );
            System.out.println( "NAME = " + name );
            System.out.println( "AGE = " + age );
            System.out.println( "ADDRESS = " + address );
            System.out.println( "SALARY = " + salary );
            System.out.println();
         }
         rs.close();
         stmt.close();
         c.close();
       } catch ( Exception e ) {
         System.err.println( e.getClass().getName()+": "+ e.getMessage() );
         System.exit(0);
       }
       System.out.println("Operation done successfully");
     }
}
SQL

程序编译执行时,会产生以下结果:

Opened database successfully
ID = 2
NAME = Allen
AGE = 25
ADDRESS = Texas
SALARY = 15000.0

ID = 3
NAME = Teddy
AGE = 23
ADDRESS = Norway
SALARY = 20000.0

ID = 4
NAME = Mark
AGE = 25
ADDRESS = Rich-Mond
SALARY = 65000.0

ID = 1
NAME = Paul
AGE = 32
ADDRESS = California
SALARY = 25000.0

Operation done successfully
Shell

删除操作

以下Java代码显示了如何使用DELETE语句删除指定记录,然后从COMPANY表中获取并显示剩余的记录:

import java.sql.Connection;
import java.sql.DriverManager;
import java.sql.ResultSet;
import java.sql.Statement;


public class PostgreSQLJDBC6 {
   public static void main( String args[] )
     {
       Connection c = null;
       Statement stmt = null;
       try {
       Class.forName("org.postgresql.Driver");
         c = DriverManager
            .getConnection("jdbc:postgresql://localhost:5432/testdb",
            "manisha", "123");
         c.setAutoCommit(false);
         System.out.println("Opened database successfully");

         stmt = c.createStatement();
         String sql = "DELETE from COMPANY where ID=2;";
         stmt.executeUpdate(sql);
         c.commit();

         ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery( "SELECT * FROM COMPANY;" );
         while ( rs.next() ) {
            int id = rs.getInt("id");
            String  name = rs.getString("name");
            int age  = rs.getInt("age");
            String  address = rs.getString("address");
            float salary = rs.getFloat("salary");
            System.out.println( "ID = " + id );
            System.out.println( "NAME = " + name );
            System.out.println( "AGE = " + age );
            System.out.println( "ADDRESS = " + address );
            System.out.println( "SALARY = " + salary );
            System.out.println();
         }
         rs.close();
         stmt.close();
         c.close();
       } catch ( Exception e ) {
         System.err.println( e.getClass().getName()+": "+ e.getMessage() );
         System.exit(0);
       }
       System.out.println("Operation done successfully");
     }
}
Java

程序编译执行时,会产生以下结果:

Opened database successfully
ID = 3
NAME = Teddy
AGE = 23
ADDRESS = Norway
SALARY = 20000.0

ID = 4
NAME = Mark
AGE = 25
ADDRESS = Rich-Mond
SALARY = 65000.0

ID = 1
NAME = Paul
AGE = 32
ADDRESS = California
SALARY = 25000.0
Operation done successfully

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